Understanding intra-household gender disparities of smallholder livestock production in Zambia
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Despite the importance of livestock in smallholder livelihood, gender inequalities continue to persist. Studies on gender disparities in livestock ownership often base their analysis on the concept of headship, but his approach is limited as it fails to adequately account for women within male-headed households. By disaggregating households into i) those with both male and female adults, ii) only female adults, iii) only male adults, in this study we analyze livestock gender disparities in terms of cultivated land size, crop income, culture, and production activities, using survey data from 7,934 households and in-depth interviews with 271 households in Zambia. Our findings show that fewer female household members own livestock than male members, and more households with only male adults own livestock than those with only female adults. To understand intra-household gender disparities, it is necessary to address the structural challenges women face, to raise awareness about these issues, and to provide targeted livestock production support to households with only female adults.Keywords: Gender Gap, Livestock, Land Size, Income.